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Lab & Facilities

The Gangopadhyay Research Group’s laboratories are housed in a 10,000 sq. ft. space that comprises a class 100 clean room for photolithography, two class 10,000 clean rooms for materials deposition and synthesis of nano materials. These labs include equipment for nanomaterials synthesis using both bottom-up and top-down approaches as well as MEMS/NEMS and, material characterization and testing tools. These laboratories are equipped with tools required for every stage of nanomaterials development, integration with MEMS/NEMS chips and devices, and materials testing and optimization. Some of the equipment available includes:

E-beam deposition system, Kurt J. Lesker AXXIS
E-Beam-130x130 Four pocket e-beam deposition system. Mainly used to deposit Metals and Oxides.
DC/RF magnetron sputtering system, AJA Int
Three gun sputtering system to deposit Metals and Oxides.This system can also deposit high density, size controlled Metal Nano particles.
 ALD system, Cambridge NanoTech
Savannah 200 ALD system is used to deposit thin, uniform, high density oxide films. Currently, we have process to deposit Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2..
Thermal Evaporator, Kurt J. Lesker Co
Nano 38, Thermal evaporator is used to deposit Metals like, Cr, Ag, Au, Al and Organic films.
This system is mainly used for surface modification of films.
Mbraun Glovebox
This glovebox maintains 0.1PPM level of humidity and Oxygen. A spincoater(SCS,G3P-8) and a hotplate(200C) is available to spin coat films inside the glovebox.
Thermal Oxidation Furnace
Thermal oxidation of silicon is usually performed at a temperature between 900 and 1200°C. It may use either water vapor or molecular oxygen as the oxidant to grow Oxide layer on silicon wafer.
Class 100 Clean Room
Class 100 clean room for photolithography.

  • OAI-200 Mask Aligner
  • Spin coater/Hot plates/oven
  • Standard Photolithography photoresists/developers available
Ellipsometer,J. A. Woollam
VASE(Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer) is  most accurate and versatile ellipsometer for research on all types of materials: semiconductors, dielectrics, polymers, metals and multi-layers. This tool is used to determine thickness and optical properties of materials.

  •  Spectral Range – 193nm to  2700nm
  • Reflection and Transmission Ellipsometry
  • Generalized Ellipsometry
Bruker Innova AFM
The Innova® Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) delivers accurate, high-resolution imaging and a wide range of functionality for advanced research in physical and material sciences.

  • Lowest Noise, Highest Resolution AFM in its Class
Renishaw inVia Raman microscope
InVia Raman microscope is an instrument for materials analysis, including a research-grade optical microscope coupled to a high-performance Raman spectrometer. This new generation Raman microscope offers a powerful non-destructive and non-contact method of sample analysis. InVia Raman microscope is fitted with two diffraction gratings(1800 lines/mm and 2400 lines/mm) to satisfy all requirements for spectral resolution, spectral coverage and optimized sensitivity. This system is fitted with a Renishaw HSES automated XYZ stage coupled to a High resolution color video, 5MP CMOS camera, can provide the mapping and imaging capabilities . Rather than just viewing discrete spectra you can create information – rich maps and images that fully illustrate your most complex samples..
Zeta Potential and Submicron Particle Size Analyzers
This system measures particle size in the range of 0.6 nm to 7 µm and zeta potential of particles in the size range of 0.6 nm to 30 μm using photon correlation spectroscopy and electrophoretic light scattering.The optional autotitrator enables isoelectric point determination by measuring zeta potential over a range of pH values.
Optical Profilometer, Vecco NT 9109
Optical Profiler measure surface topography from nanometer-scale roughness through millimeter-scale steps, with an unmatched combination of sub-nanometer resolution. This interferometry systems provides most precise, 3D surface metrology.

  • Sub-nanometer resolution for roughness analysis of super-smooth surfaces
  • Fast measurement acquisition over large lateral areas.
Contact Angle Goniometer
The ramé-hart Model 200 Standard Contact Angle Goniometer is a powerful tool for measuring contact angle and surface energy. The DROPimage Standard software measures contact angle and includes a suite of surface energy tools including: the Acid-Base Tool, the Surface Energy Tool, the Work of Adhesion Tool and Zisman’s Plot Tool.
Nicolet 4700 FT-IR
The instrument is a routine-use, mid-IR (~400-4000 wavenumbers). The maximum resolution is 0.5 wavenumbers.Attenuated Total Reflectance(ATR)-FTIR is also available.
Shimadzu UV-2401 UV-VIS spectrophotometer
The Shimadzu UV-2401 UV-VIS spectrophotometer is a standard research-grade UV-VIS spectrophotometer capable of scanning from 190-900 nm. The software is capable of acquiring data in spectrum mode, photometric mode and kinetic data.
There are two attachments available, the standard 2-cell sample/reference holder and other to hold flat substrates.
Surface Area Analyzer
The Autosorb-1-MP/LP Automatic Surface Area and Pore Size Analyzer is a fully automated, vacuum volumetric, gas sorption system for characterization of surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution of microporous and mesoporous solids.This system is very useful for the characterization of nanostructured and porous materials.
Thermal Analysis
Simultaneous DSC TGA (SDT 600): This system provides simultaneous measurement of weight change (TGA) and differential heat flow (DSC) on the same sample from ambient to 1,500°C. The system is equipped with Platinum-Rhodium thermocouple based temperature control unit, horizontal furnace and gas purge system.
Electrochemical Measurements
The Model 800B series are designed for electrochemical detection. This Instrument can be used for monitoring the current passing through a flow cell in liquid chromatography/electrochemistry and in flow injection analysis, but they can also be used for other electroanalytical applications.
Sweep Techniques

  • Cyclic Voltammetry
  • Linear Sweep Voltammetry
Hall Measurement System
MMR’s Variable Temperature Hall System (VTHS) allows the user to make automatic measurements of resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration of a wide range of samples using the Van der Pauw method .
Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer
The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of materials, semiconductor devices and processes. From basic I-V and C-V measurement sweeps to advanced ultra-fast pulsed I-V, waveform capture, and transient I-V measurements. This tool is hooked up with Micromanipulated Cryogenic Probe System from Janis research.
Rigaku X-ray diffractometer
This tool has a multistage goniometer that accommodates powder samples and thin films. Besides, standard diffraction scan, this tool can do the thin film reflectivity measurements to determine the density, roughness, interface roughness of multilayer thin films.
HP and Keithley electrical characterization setups with Micromanipulator probestations